See also UNESCO.ORG spacer Subscribe to UIS E-mail Alerts
spacer spacer RSS feed spacer  



Printable Version
  PDF Version
UIS STATISTICS IN BRIEF
Science profile - Mongolia
  Research and Development (R&D)
Research and experimental development (R&D) refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis to increase the stock of knowledge and its use to devise new applications. Knowledge refers to all fields of science, including social sciences and humanities. The term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental development.
  Human Resources in Research and Development (R&D)
R&D personnel are all persons employed directly in research and experimental development (R&D) as well as those providing direct services, such as R&D managers, administrators and clerical staff. Persons providing indirect services, such as canteen and security staff, should be excluded. R&D personnel comprise researchers, technicians and equivalent staff as well as other supporting staff. Here, researchers refer to professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems as well as those involved in the management of the projects concerned.
 NUMBER OF RESEARCHERS
Researchers by sex (FTE) ... ... ...
MF
  ...
  ...
  ...
%F
  ...
  ...
  ...

Researchers by sex (HC) 2000 2005 2011
MF
  (cd) 1 631
  (cd) 1 731
(cd) 1 799
%F
  ...
  47.3
(cd) 49.2
49.2% of researchers are women (2011, HC)

Researchers (FTE) ... ... ...
per million inhabitants
  ...
  ...
  ...
per thousand labour force
  ...
  ...
  ...
per thousand total employment
  ...
  ...
  ...

Researchers (HC) 2000 2005 2011
per million inhabitants
  (cd) 680
  (cd) 685
(cd) 653
per thousand labour force
  (cd) 1.72
  (cd) 1.61
(cd) 1.50
per thousand total employment
  (cd) 1.85
  (cd) 1.77
(cd) 1.51
There are 653 researchers per million inhabitants (2011, HC)


 RESEARCHERS BY SECTOR OF EMPLOYMENT
Researchers by sector of employment - % (FTE) ... ... ...
Business enterprise
  ...
  ...
  ...
Government
  ...
  ...
  ...
Higher education
  ...
  ...
  ...
Private non-profit
  ...
  ...
  ...
Not specified
  ...
  ...
  ...

Researchers by sector of employment - % (HC) ... 2005 2011
Business enterprise
  ...
  1.7
(cd) 7.8
Government
  ...
  89.2
84.5
Higher education
  ...
  9.1
(cd) 7.6
Private non-profit
  ...
  -
-
Not specified
  ...
  -
-
84.5% of researchers are employed in the government sector (2011, HC)

 RESEARCHERS BY FORMAL QUALIFICATION
Researchers by qualification - % (FTE) ... ... ...
ISCED 6
  ...
  ...
  ...
ISCED 5A
  ...
  ...
  ...
ISCED 5B
  ...
  ...
  ...
All other qualifications
  ...
  ...
  ...
Not specified
  ...
  ...
  ...

Researchers by qualification - % (HC) ... 2005 2011
ISCED 6
  ...
  31.1
(cd) 32.1
ISCED 5A
  ...
  (ap) 68.9
(ap,cd) 67.9
ISCED 5B
  ...
  (bu) -
-
All other qualifications
  ...
  -
-
Not specified
  ...
  -
-
32.1% of researchers hold PhD degrees (2011, HC)

 RESEARCHERS BY FIELD OF SCIENCE
Researchers by field of science - % (FTE) ... ... ...
Natural sciences
  ...
  ...
  ...
Engineering & technology
  ...
  ...
  ...
Medical sciences
  ...
  ...
  ...
Agricultural sciences
  ...
  ...
  ...
Social sciences
  ...
  ...
  ...
Humanities
  ...
  ...
  ...
Not specified
  ...
  ...
  ...

Researchers by field of science - % (HC) ... 2005 2011
Natural sciences
  ...
  37.4
(cd) 40.1
Engineering & technology
  ...
  16.5
(cd) 12.3
Medical sciences
  ...
  11.0
(cd) 10.5
Agricultural sciences
  ...
  17.7
(cd) 17.3
Social sciences
  ...
  (ai) 17.4
(ai,cd) 19.8
Humanities
  ...
  (bm) -
-
Not specified
  ...
  -
-
40.1% of researchers are working in the field of Natural sciences (2011, HC)

 EXPENDITURE ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D)
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is all expenditure for research and experimental development performed within a country, including both current costs and capital expenditures.
 GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D (GERD)
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) 2000 2005 2011
GERD in '000 local currency
(cd) 2 296 000
(cd) 7 231 100
(cd) 30 371 200
GERD in '000 PPP$
(cd) 8 861
(cd) 17 332
(cd) 36 369
GERD as a percentage of GDP
  (cd) 0.19
  (cd) 0.24
(cd) 0.27
GERD per capita in PPP$
  (cd) 3.7
  (cd) 6.9
(cd) 13.2
GERD in '000 PPP$ (in constant prices - 2005)
(cd) 9 988
(cd) 17 332
(cd) 32 116
0.27% of GDP spent on R&D (2011)


 GERD BY SECTOR OF PERFORMANCE
GERD by sector of performance (%) 2000 2005 2011
Business enterprise
  ...
  1.6
(cd) 6.8
Government
  (af) 100.0
  73.0
75.3
Higher education
  (bi) -
  25.4
(cd) 12.6
Private non-profit
  ...
  -
-
Not specified
  ...
  -
(cd) 5.4

 GERD BY SOURCE OF FUNDS
GERD by source of funds (%) 2000 2005 2011
Business enterprise
  ...
  10.4
(cd) 11.4
Government
  100.0
  77.8
(cd) 65.5
Higher education
  ...
  0.8
(cd) 1.3
Private non-profit
  ...
  -
-
Funds from abroad
  ...
  4.4
(cd) 3.9
Not specified
  ...
  6.5
(cd) 18.0
75.3% of R&D is carried out in the government sector (2011)
65.5% of R&D is funded by the government sector (2011)
Symbols and abbreviations used:
-Magnitude nil or negligible value
...Data not available
.Category not applicable
xChart symbol: Data not available
MFMale and Female
%FPercentage of Female
ISCED levelsISCED 6: PhD, Doctorate or similar level; ISCED 5A: Bachelor or Master programmes; ISCED 5B: Shorter occupation-oriented programmes.
Headcount (HC) and full-time equivalent (FTE)These are two different methods of accounting for human resources. HC are data on the total number of persons who are mainly or partially employed in R&D. This includes staff employed both “full-time” and “part-time”. FTE data are a measure of the actual volume of human resources devoted to R&D and are especially useful for international comparisons. 1 FTE is equal to 1 person working full-time for 1 year, or more persons working part-time or for a shorter period, corresponding to 1 person-year. Thus, a person who normally spends 30% of his/her time on R&D and the rest on other activities (such as teaching, university administration and student counselling) should be considered as 0.3 FTE. Similarly, if a full-time R&D worker is employed at an R&D unit for only six months, this results in an FTE of 0.5.
Footnotes:
cd Partial data
cr Break in series with previous year for which data are available
ap Including Tertiary: ISCED97 5B (i.e. shorter occupationally oriented programmes)
bu Included in Tertiary: ISCED97 5A (i.e. Bachelor or Master degrees)
ai Including Humanities
bm Included in Social sciences
af Including Higher Education
bi Included in Government